Aviation - INTRODUCTION
EARLY HISTORY
THE 19TH CENTURY
KITTY HAWK AND AFTER
HISTORIC HEADLINES
WORLD WAR I AND AFTER
WORLD WAR II
AFTER WORLD WAR II
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
Airplane
HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES
SUPERSONIC FLIGHT
AIRPLANE STRUCTURE
Wings
Tail Assembly
Landing Gear
Control Components
Instruments
PROPULSION
TYPES OF AIRPLANES
Land Planes
Carrier-Based Aircraft
Seaplanes
Amphibians
Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes
Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes
Space Shuttle
CLASSES OF AIRPLANES
Commercial Airplanes
Military Airplanes
General-Aviation Aircraft
HISTORY
The First Airplane Flight
Early Military and Public Interest
Planes of World War I
Development of Commercial Aviation
Aircraft Developments of World War II
The Jumbo Jet Era

Wings




Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer

All airplanes, by definition, have wings. Some are nearly all wing with a very small cockpit. Others have minimal wings, or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended, aerodynamic fuselage, such as the space shuttle. (Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer)

Before the 20th century, wings were made of wooden ribs and spars (or beams), covered with fabric that was sewn tightly and varnished to be extremely stiff. A conventional wing has one or more spars that run from one end of the wing to the other. Perpendicular to the spar are a series of ribs, which run from the front, or leading edge, to the rear, or trailing edge, of the wing. These are carefully constructed to shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting properties. Wood and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure, because of that materialís relatively light weight and high strength, and linen for the cloth covering. (Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer)

Early airplanes were usually biplanes-craft with two wings on each side of the fuselage, usually one mounted about 1.5 m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the other. Aircraft pioneers found they could build such wings relatively easily and brace them together using wires to connect the upper and lower wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift. In pushing the many cables, wood, and fabric through the air, these designs created a great deal of drag, so aircraft engineers eventually pursued the monoplane, or single-wing airplane. A monoplaneís single wing gives it great advantages in speed, simplicity, and visibility for the pilot. (Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer)
After World War I (1914-1918), designers began moving toward wings made of steel and aluminum, and, combined with new construction techniques, these materials enabled the development of modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift but of housing landing gear, weapons, and fuel. (Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer)
Over the years, many airplane designers have postulated that the ideal airplane would, in fact, be nothing but wing. Flying wings, as they are called, were first developed in the 1930s and 1940s. American aerospace manufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporationís flying wing, the B-2 bomber, or stealth bomber, developed in the 1980s, has been a great success as a flying machine, benefiting from modern computer-aided design (CAD), advanced materials, and computerized flight controls. Popular magazines routinely show artistsí concepts of flying-wing airliners, but airline and airport managers have been unable to integrate these unusual shapes into conventional airline and airport facilities. (Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer)



Aerodynamic Airplane - Aircraft Wings (biplane) Aircraft engineer