Aviation - INTRODUCTION
EARLY HISTORY
THE 19TH CENTURY
KITTY HAWK AND AFTER
HISTORIC HEADLINES
WORLD WAR I AND AFTER
WORLD WAR II
AFTER WORLD WAR II
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS
Airplane
HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES
SUPERSONIC FLIGHT
AIRPLANE STRUCTURE
Wings
Tail Assembly
Landing Gear
Control Components
Instruments
PROPULSION
TYPES OF AIRPLANES
Land Planes
Carrier-Based Aircraft
Seaplanes
Amphibians
Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes
Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes
Space Shuttle
CLASSES OF AIRPLANES
Commercial Airplanes
Military Airplanes
General-Aviation Aircraft
HISTORY
The First Airplane Flight
Early Military and Public Interest
Planes of World War I
Development of Commercial Aviation
Aircraft Developments of World War II
The Jumbo Jet Era

AFTER WORLD WAR II




The National Aviation Hall of Fame | Aircraft Voyager | Ultralight Planes Typically

National Aviation Hall of Fame Members The National Aviation Hall of Fame was established in Dayton, Ohio, in 1962. It is dedicated to honoring the outstanding pioneers of air and space.

In 1945, U.S. military-aircraft production was sharply curtailed, but civilian-aircraft orders increased considerably. By the end of the year, U.S. manufacturers held orders for 40,000 planes, in contrast to the former production record for civilian use of 6,844 planes in 1941. Again the domestic and international airlines of the U.S. broke all records, with all categories of traffic showing substantial gains over 1944. Both passenger fares and basic freight rates were reduced. International commercial services were resumed in 1945. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)

What Is a Black Box? When an aviation accident occurs, officials usually begin their investigation by attempting to locate recording devices commonly known as black boxes. The devices record not only the conversations of the pilots and air traffic controllers, but also track details of the movement and behavior of the aircraft. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)

The experience gained in the production of military aircraft during the war was utilized in civil-aircraft production following the close of hostilities. Larger, faster aircraft, with such improvements as pressurized cabins, were made available to the airlines. Improved airports, more efficient weather forecasting, additional aids to navigation (see Air Traffic Control), and public demand for air transportation all aided in the postwar boom in airline passenger travel and freight transportation. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)

Experimentation with new aerodynamic designs, new metals, new power plants, and electronic inventions resulted in the development of high-speed turbojet planes designed for transoceanic flights, supersonic aircraft, experimental rocket planes, STOL craft, and the space shuttle. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)

In December 1986 the ultralight experimental aircraft Voyager successfully completed the first nonstop around-the-world flight without refueling. Voyager was designed by Burt Rutan in an unorthodox H shape with outrigger booms and rudders. The aircraft had two engines: one engine in front for takeoffs, landings, and maneuvering; the other in back for in-flight power. Composed mostly of lightweight plastic composite materials, the plane weighed only 4420 kg (9750 lb) at takeoff-with 4500 liters (1200 gallons) of fuel in its 17 fuel tanks-and 840 kg (1858 lb) on landing. Pilots Dick Rutan, Burt's brother, and Jeana Yeager flew 40,254 km (25,012 mi) in 9 days, 3 min, 44 sec at an average speed of 186.3 km/h (115.8 mph), establishing a distance and endurance record. The previous distance record of 20,169 km (12,532 mi) was set in 1962. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)
Ultralight Planes Typically

An ultralight plane flies at an aviation show in Israel. Used for recreation, ultralight planes typically have one small engine and one seat, carry less than 20 liters (5 gal) of fuel, and weigh about 115 kg (250 lb).

Ultralight Plane An ultralight plane flies at an aviation show in Israel. Used for recreation, ultralight planes typically have one small engine and one seat, carry less than 20 liters (5 gal) of fuel, and weigh about 115 kg (250 lb).
In 1967 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) replaced the Federal Aviation Agency, which had been created in 1958. The FAA classified the air transportation industry in the U.S. as commercial air carriers, regionals and commuters, helicopters, and all-cargo carriers. Nonscheduled air carriers are in a separate classification. The scheduled airlines maintain a trade association known as the Air Transport Association of America. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)

After World War II a marked increase in the use of company-owned airplanes for the transportation of executives took place. In fact, by the early 1980s such craft composed well more than 90 percent of all aircraft active in the U.S. General trends in the U.S. air transport industry, in the 1980s, included airline deregulation (begun in 1978), mergers of airlines, and fluctuating air fares and “price wars.” Three major U.S. airlines ceased operations in 1991: Pan American and Eastern, both of which had been flying since 1928, and a relative newcomer, Midway, which was founded in 1979. (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)

Conferences relative to the problems of international flight were held as early as 1889, but it was not until 1947 that an organization was established to handle the problems of large-scale international air travel: the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an affiliate of the United Nations (UN), with headquarters in Montréal. Working in close cooperation with ICAO is the International Air Transport Association (IATA), which also has its headquarters in Montréal and is comprised of about 100 airlines that seek jointly to solve mutual problems. Another such organization is the Fédération Aéronautique International (FAI). (AFTER WORLD WAR II, The National Aviation Hall of Fame, Aircraft Voyager, Ultralight Planes Typically)



AFTER WORLD WAR II | The National Aviation Hall of Fame | Aircraft Voyager | Ultralight Planes Typically