REPRODUCTION, BIRTH, AND THE YOUNG


Dogs generally reach sexual maturity at about six months of age, with small breeds often maturing earlier than large breeds. Female dogs, or bitches, become sexually receptive to mating during a period called estrus (also called season or heat), which occurs about twice a year for 6 to 12 days. After a gestation period of about 63 days, an average litter of three to six puppies is born.

Blind and unable to stand, newborn puppies are helpless and spend 90 percent of their time sleeping and 10 percent nursing. Becoming chilled is the greatest danger facing a healthy newborn puppy because its immature circulatory system cannot sustain an adequate body temperature. For this reason, newborn puppies tend to stay close to their mother or cuddle together for warmth. Mothers clean, nurse, and defend their pups until they can live on their own, but fathers do not involve themselves in the care of the young.

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DOGS:


INTRODUCTION
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
REPRODUCTION, BIRTH, AND THE YOUNG
DOG BREEDS
DOG BEHAVIOR
CARING FOR A DOG
TRAINING YOUR DOG
DOG SHOWS


Herding Dogs
Hounds
Nonsporting Dogs
Sporting Dogs
Terriers
Toy Breeds
Working Dogs



DOGS FAMILY:


INTRODUCTION
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
REPRODUCTION
TYPES OF CANIDS
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR
HUMANS AND THE DOG FAMILY



DOGS RACINGS:


INTRODUCTION
MODERN RACING
HISTORY



DOGS SHOWS AND TRIALS:


INTRODUCTION
DOG SHOWS
OBEDIENCE TRIALS
FIELD TRIALS



DOGSLEDDING:


INTRODUCTION
DOGSLEDDING FUNDAMENTALS
EQUIPMENT
TRAINING AND CARING FOR THE DOGS
DOGSLED RACING
GOVERNING BODIES
HISTORY



WOLVES:


INTRODUCTION
Coyote
Gray Wolf
Red Wolf



FOXES:


INTRODUCTION
THE RED FOX
OTHER FOXES
Fennec, African fox
Fox Hunting
Red Fox

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