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AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY:
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
Domestic Impact
Foreign Trade
HOW CARS ARE BUILT
Research, Design, and Development
Manufacturing and Assembly
Sales and Service
Customer Feedback
HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
Early Automobile Concepts
Henry Ford and Mass Production
Other Automakers
The Great Depression of the 1930s
Labor Unions and Strikes
Wartime Production
Postwar Production
Automobile Safety
Foreign Imports and the Energy Crisis
The 1980s and 1990s
FUTURE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRENDS
Computerization
Alternative Fuel Research
Materials and Safety

AUTOMOBILE:
POWER SYSTEM
Engine
Engine Types
Fuel Supply
Exhaust System
Cooling and Heating System
DRIVETRAIN
Transmission
Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive
SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Suspension System
Wheels and Tires
CONTROL SYSTEMS
Steering
Brakes
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Ignition System
SAFETY FEATURES
HISTORY
Automobiles Through the Years
Internal-Combustion Engine
Early Electric Cars
AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY
NEW TECHNOLOGIES

ROAD:
TYPES OF ROADS
Highways
Urban Streets
Rural Roads
ROADWAY ENGINEERING
Roadbed
Base Course
Wearing Course
Bituminous Pavement
Concrete Pavement
ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION
HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION


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Postwar Production


This 1957 Cadillac El Dorado convertible epitomizes the large cars of the “American Dream” era. Tail fins are an example of a trend in car design. Although the feature did little for the performance of the vehicle, consumers loved the look, and demanded fins of increasing size until the 1960s.

Passenger car production resumed after World War II with 1946 models. U.S. automakers had trouble meeting the pent-up demand. Suburbs sprouted up and a nationwide system of interstate highways was planned. In 1949 new-car sales of more than 4.8 million in the United States finally topped the old record set in precrash 1929 by almost 1 million units. By 1955 sales approached 7.2 million.

While large companies enjoyed success, smaller automobile companies and newcomers found it increasingly difficult to compete against the expensive annual model changeovers offered by existing manufacturers. In 1947 and 1948 American automobile pioneer Preston Tucker began production of his Tucker Torpedo, which featured a Cyclops-like, centered headlamp that turned with the front wheels. The design was good, but as a low-volume manufacturer, Tucker ran into production problems, and his company collapsed after managing to make only about 50 cars.

In the 1950s American automobiles increased in size and sported decorative features such as tail fins. GM built a strong sales lead during the 1950s when its cars included tail fins, automatic transmissions, and high-compression V-8 engines. However, by the end of the decade consumers began desiring smaller cars, and average sizes began to decrease.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION:
TYPES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
Buses
Paratransit
Streetcars
Light-Rail Transit
Heavy-Rail Transit
Commuter Rail Transit
Automated Guided Transit
Ferries
DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES
HISTORY

TRUCK:
LIGHT TRUCKS
MEDIUM TRUCKS
HEAVY TRUCKS
TRAILERS
TRUCKING OPERATIONS AND REGULATIONS
HISTORY