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AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY:
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
Domestic Impact
Foreign Trade
HOW CARS ARE BUILT
Research, Design, and Development
Manufacturing and Assembly
Sales and Service
Customer Feedback
HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
Early Automobile Concepts
Henry Ford and Mass Production
Other Automakers
The Great Depression of the 1930s
Labor Unions and Strikes
Wartime Production
Postwar Production
Automobile Safety
Foreign Imports and the Energy Crisis
The 1980s and 1990s
FUTURE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRENDS
Computerization
Alternative Fuel Research
Materials and Safety

AUTOMOBILE:
POWER SYSTEM
Engine
Engine Types
Fuel Supply
Exhaust System
Cooling and Heating System
DRIVETRAIN
Transmission
Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive
SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Suspension System
Wheels and Tires
CONTROL SYSTEMS
Steering
Brakes
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Ignition System
SAFETY FEATURES
HISTORY
Automobiles Through the Years
Internal-Combustion Engine
Early Electric Cars
AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY
NEW TECHNOLOGIES

ROAD:
TYPES OF ROADS
Highways
Urban Streets
Rural Roads
ROADWAY ENGINEERING
Roadbed
Base Course
Wearing Course
Bituminous Pavement
Concrete Pavement
ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION
HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION


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Foreign Trade



Competition in the automotive industry intensified during the 1980s and 1990s. The U.S. industry was particularly hard-hit by the gas crisis of the late 1970s. Many consumers began to favor smaller, less expensive, and often more fuel-efficient Japanese cars. Here, a long line of Japanese cars awaits export from the port of Yokohama.

Sales of U.S. motor vehicles to Americans are expected to remain near the same level in the future, with about 1 to 2 percent growth per year, while foreign markets are expanding at rates that are two, three, and even ten times faster. Because exports will be essential to expanding the auto and auto parts industries, U.S. trade officials have negotiated trade agreements such as the Memorandum of Understanding with Korea (1993), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, 1994), and the U.S.-Japan Automotive Framework Agreement (1995). These and other agreements have increased automobile and other exports to Japan, Mexico, and Korea many times over.

In 1994 the United States successfully promoted the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which helped American auto export potential because it improved access to both major and developing markets. These initiatives have helped the U.S. automotive industry achieve the highest level of exports on record. Between 1994 and 2000, shipments abroad of motor vehicles and parts increased 39 percent, reaching a value of $80.4 billion.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION:
TYPES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
Buses
Paratransit
Streetcars
Light-Rail Transit
Heavy-Rail Transit
Commuter Rail Transit
Automated Guided Transit
Ferries
DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES
HISTORY

TRUCK:
LIGHT TRUCKS
MEDIUM TRUCKS
HEAVY TRUCKS
TRAILERS
TRUCKING OPERATIONS AND REGULATIONS
HISTORY