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AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY:
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE
Domestic Impact
Foreign Trade
HOW CARS ARE BUILT
Research, Design, and Development
Manufacturing and Assembly
Sales and Service
Customer Feedback
HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY
Early Automobile Concepts
Henry Ford and Mass Production
Other Automakers
The Great Depression of the 1930s
Labor Unions and Strikes
Wartime Production
Postwar Production
Automobile Safety
Foreign Imports and the Energy Crisis
The 1980s and 1990s
FUTURE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRENDS
Computerization
Alternative Fuel Research
Materials and Safety

AUTOMOBILE:
POWER SYSTEM
Engine
Engine Types
Fuel Supply
Exhaust System
Cooling and Heating System
DRIVETRAIN
Transmission
Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive
SUPPORT SYSTEMS
Suspension System
Wheels and Tires
CONTROL SYSTEMS
Steering
Brakes
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Ignition System
SAFETY FEATURES
HISTORY
Automobiles Through the Years
Internal-Combustion Engine
Early Electric Cars
AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY
NEW TECHNOLOGIES

ROAD:
TYPES OF ROADS
Highways
Urban Streets
Rural Roads
ROADWAY ENGINEERING
Roadbed
Base Course
Wearing Course
Bituminous Pavement
Concrete Pavement
ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION
HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION


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HOW CARS ARE BUILT

Making a car involves several major decisions about the design of the car, how it will be built, and how it will be sold. Managers must also coordinate factory production, purchase materials, and train workers—all within a budget. Marketing teams must then sell the car and project returns on shareholder investments. New models are introduced yearly, but a single car design can take several years to get from the drawing board to the showroom floor. A typical company will therefore have several new designs in various stages of development at any given time.

The group within an automobile company that makes the main decisions about new cars often includes the chairman of the board and board members, the president, the marketing director, the sales director, the finance director, and the head of product development. These leaders must budget money, recruit a workforce, and set realistic deadlines. Rather than sending ideas from step to step as they are completed, leaders collaborate from the start with designers and engineers in a process known as simultaneous engineering to increase the speed and efficiency of car production. Engineering, manufacturing, sales, and other specialized departments in turn support the leadership decisions. Most of these positions require college degrees and extensive training. Companies also rely on the administrative services of clerks, typists, telephone operators, and others to support the process of automaking.

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PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION:
TYPES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION
Buses
Paratransit
Streetcars
Light-Rail Transit
Heavy-Rail Transit
Commuter Rail Transit
Automated Guided Transit
Ferries
DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES
HISTORY

TRUCK:
LIGHT TRUCKS
MEDIUM TRUCKS
HEAVY TRUCKS
TRAILERS
TRUCKING OPERATIONS AND REGULATIONS
HISTORY