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POWER SYSTEM Engine Engine Types Fuel Supply Exhaust System Cooling and Heating System DRIVETRAIN Transmission Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive Suspension System Wheels and Tires Steering Brakes ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Ignition System SAFETY FEATURES CARS HISTORY Automobiles Through the Years Internal-Combustion Engine Early Electric Cars AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY

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TRUCK:

TRUCKS LIGHT TRUCKS MEDIUM TRUCKS HEAVY TRUCKS TRAILERS TRUCKING OPERATIONS AND REGULATIONS HISTORY
PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION:

TYPES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Buses Paratransit Streetcars Light-Rail Transit Heavy-Rail Transit Commuter Rail Transit Automated Guided Transit Ferries DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES HISTORY
AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY:

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Domestic Impact Foreign Trade HOW CARS ARE BUILT Research, Design, and Development Manufacturing and Assembly Sales and Service Customer Feedback HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Early Automobile Concepts Henry Ford and Mass Production Other Automakers The Great Depression of the 1930s Labor Unions and Strikes Wartime Production Postwar Production Automobile Safety Foreign Imports and the Energy Crisis The 1980s and 1990s FUTURE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRENDS Computerization Alternative Fuel Research Materials and Safety
ROAD:

TYPES OF ROADS Highways Urban Streets Rural Roads ROADWAY ENGINEERING Roadbed Base Course Wearing Course Bituminous Pavement Concrete Pavement ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION

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Automobile brakes systems


Automobile brakes systems: Disc and Drum Brakes in Cars - Antilock Braking System - ABS  Disc and drum brakes create friction to slow the wheels of a motor vehicle. When a driver presses on the brake pedal of a vehicle, brake lines filled with fluid transmit the force to the brakes. In a disc brake, the fluid pushes the brake pads in the caliper against the rotor, slowing the wheel. In a drum brake, the fluid pushes small pistons in the brake cylinder against the hinged brake shoes. The shoes pivot outward and press against a drum attached to the wheel to slow the wheel.

 Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. By pulling a lever, the driver pressed a block of wood, leather, or metal, known as the shoe, against the wheel rims. With sufficient pressure, friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop. Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft.

 A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel, called drum brakes, appeared in 1903. Since the drum and wheel rotate together, friction applied by the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel. Cotton and leather shoe coverings, or linings, were replaced by asbestos after 1908, greatly extending the life of the brake mechanism. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s. Disk brakes, in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle, were in use by the 1950s.

 An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer, sensors, and a hydraulic pump to stop the automobile’s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. Introduced in the 1980s, ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces.

 Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to securely park the car, especially on uneven terrain. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a foot pedal sets the brake.

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