CARS EDUCATION: AUTO Industry - New automobile



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POWER SYSTEM Engine Engine Types Fuel Supply Exhaust System Cooling and Heating System DRIVETRAIN Transmission Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive Suspension System Wheels and Tires Steering Brakes ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Ignition System SAFETY FEATURES CARS HISTORY Automobiles Through the Years Internal-Combustion Engine Early Electric Cars AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY

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TYPES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Buses Paratransit Streetcars Light-Rail Transit Heavy-Rail Transit Commuter Rail Transit Automated Guided Transit Ferries DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES HISTORY

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Domestic Impact Foreign Trade HOW CARS ARE BUILT Research, Design, and Development Manufacturing and Assembly Sales and Service Customer Feedback HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Early Automobile Concepts Henry Ford and Mass Production Other Automakers The Great Depression of the 1930s Labor Unions and Strikes Wartime Production Postwar Production Automobile Safety Foreign Imports and the Energy Crisis The 1980s and 1990s FUTURE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRENDS Computerization Alternative Fuel Research Materials and Safety

TYPES OF ROADS Highways Urban Streets Rural Roads ROADWAY ENGINEERING Roadbed Base Course Wearing Course Bituminous Pavement Concrete Pavement ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION

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Automobile Safety Feature

 Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions.

 Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the carís body from damage in minor collisions. Over the years, bumpers became stylish and, in some cases, not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. Eventually, government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2.5-mph) collisions with no damage, while others can withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage.

 Modern vehicles feature crumple zones, portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. Passenger compartments on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof, in case the vehicle overturns, and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts.

 Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically during an impact are now common. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint belts that slide into position automatically when the carís doors close.

 An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the dash on the passengerís side. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags, located in doors or seats. At impact, the bag inflates almost instantaneously. The inflated bag creates a cushion between the occupant and the vehicleís interior. Air bags first appeared in the mid-1970s, available as an optional accessory. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars sold in the United States.

 Air bags inflate with great force, which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. Automakers continue to research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers, yet effective in collisions. ©2021.