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HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices
Keyboard
Mouse
Joystick

TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Digital and Analog
Range of Computer Ability

BLOGGING

BROWSER

Computers

Uses of computers

INTERNET
Uses of the Internet
Internet Access
How Information Travels Over the Internet
Network Names and Addresses
Client/Server Architecture
Electronic Mail and News Groups
Other Internet Applications
Bandwidth
History
The Future of the Internet

World Wide Web
A WEB OF COMPUTERS
HOW THE WEB WORKS
WHO USES THE WEB
HISTORY
FUTURE TRENDS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC


Artificial Intelligence (AI)


NETWORKS

Computer Memory
Internal RAM
Internal ROM
External Memory
Magnetic Media
Optical Media
Magneto-Optical Media
Cache Memory

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

Corporation
Microsoft
FOUNDING
MS-DOS
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
WINDOWS
RECENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS
LEGAL CHALLENGES
Settlement with U.S. Justice Department
European Commission Ruling
Settlement with Sun


HISTORY
Beginnings
First Punch Cards
Beginnings
Precursor to Modern Computer
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit
Colleges and Universities
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding. The CPU can understand only this language.
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Computer Memory
Computer Memory, a mechanism that stores data for use by a computer. In a computer all data consist of numbers. A computer stores a number into a specific location in memory and later fetches the value. Most memories represent data with the binary number system. In the binary number system, numbers are represented by sequences of the two binary digits 0 and 1, which are called bits (see Number Systems). In a computer, the two possible values of a bit correspond to the on and off states of the computer's electronic circuitry.
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Central Processing Unit
Central Processing Unit (CPU), in computer science, microscopic circuitry that serves as the main information processor in a computer. A CPU is generally a single microprocessor made from a wafer of semiconducting material, usually silicon, with millions of electrical components on its surface.
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Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial Intelligence (AI), a term that in its broadest sense would indicate the ability of an artifact to perform the same kinds of functions that characterize human thought. The possibility of developing some such artifact has intrigued human beings since ancient times. With the growth of modern science, the search for AI has taken two major directions: psychological and physiological research into the nature of human thought, and the technological development of increasingly sophisticated computing systems.
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Microsoft Corporation
Microsoft Corporation, the largest company in the world dedicated to creating computer software. Microsoft develops and sells a wide variety of software products to businesses and consumers and has subsidiary offices in more than 60 countries. The company’s Windows operating systems for personal computers are the most widely used operating systems in the world. Microsoft has its headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
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Computer Education - Audiovisual Education
Audiovisual Education, planning, preparation, and use of devices and materials that involve sight, sound, or both for educational purposes. Among the devices used are still and motion pictures, filmstrips, television, transparencies, audiotapes, records, teaching machines, computers and videodiscs. The growth of audiovisual education has reflected developments in both technology and learning theory.

Internet
Internet, computer-based global information system. The Internet is composed of many interconnected computer networks. Each network may link tens, hundreds, or even thousands of computers, enabling them to share information with one another and to share computational resources such as powerful supercomputers and databases of information. The Internet has made it possible for people all over the world to communicate with one another effectively and inexpensively. Unlike traditional broadcasting media, such as radio and television, the Internet does not have a centralized distribution system. Instead, an individual who has Internet access can communicate directly with anyone else on the Internet, make information available to others, find information provided by others, or sell products with a minimum overhead cost.
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HISTORY
Audiovisual education emerged as a discipline in the 1920s, when film technology was developing rapidly. A visual instruction movement arose, which encouraged the use of visual materials to make abstract ideas more concrete to students. As sound technology improved, the movement became known as audiovisual instruction.

Educators at that time viewed audiovisuals only as aids to teachers. Not until World War II, when the armed services used audiovisual materials to train large numbers of persons in short periods of time, did the potential of these devices as primary sources of instruction become apparent.

In the 1950s and '60s, developments in communications theory and systems concepts led to studies of the educational process, its elements, and their interrelationships. Among these elements are the teacher, the teaching methods, the information conveyed, the materials used, the student, and the student's responses. As a result of these studies, the field of audiovisuals shifted its emphasis from devices and materials to the examination of the teaching-learning process. The field was now known as audiovisual communications and educational technology, and audiovisual materials were viewed as an integral part of the educational system.

ADVANTAGES
Studies in the psychology of learning suggest that the use of audiovisuals in education has several advantages. All learning is based on perception, the process by which the senses gain information from the environment. The higher processes of memory and concept formation cannot occur without prior perception. Persons can attend to only a limited amount of information at a time; their selection and perception of information is influenced by past experiences. Researchers have found that, other conditions being equal, more learning occurs when information is received simultaneously in two modalities (vision and hearing, for example) rather than in a single modality. Furthermore, learning is enhanced when material is organized and that organization is evident to the student.

These findings suggest the value of audiovisuals in the educational process. They can facilitate perception of the most important features, can be carefully organized, and can require the student to use more than one modality.

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