Computer Education

Computer Memory
Internal RAM
Internal ROM
External Memory
Magnetic Media
Optical Media
Magneto-Optical Media
Cache Memory

HISTORY
Beginnings
First Punch Cards
Beginnings
Precursor to Modern Computer

TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Digital and Analog
Range of Computer Ability

NETWORKS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

External Memory


External memory can generally be classified as either magnetic or optical, or a combination called magneto-optical. A magnetic storage device, such as a computer's hard drive, uses a surface coated with material that can be magnetized in two possible ways. The surface rotates under a small electromagnet that magnetizes each spot on the surface to record a 0 or 1. To retrieve data, the surface passes under a sensor that determines whether the magnetism was set for a 0 or 1. Optical storage devices such as a compact disc (CD) player use lasers to store and retrieve information from a plastic disk. Magneto-optical memory devices use a combination of optical storage and retrieval technology coupled with a magnetic medium.

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