Computer Education

Computer Memory
Internal RAM
Internal ROM
External Memory
Magnetic Media
Optical Media
Magneto-Optical Media
Cache Memory

HISTORY
Beginnings
First Punch Cards
Beginnings
Precursor to Modern Computer

TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Digital and Analog
Range of Computer Ability

NETWORKS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

Magneto-Optical Media


Magneto-optical (MO) devices write data to a disk with the help of a laser beam and a magnetic write-head. To write data to the disk, the laser focuses on a spot on the surface of the disk heating it up slightly. This allows the magnetic write-head to change the physical orientation of small grains of magnetic material (actually tiny crystals) on the surface of the disk. These tiny crystals reflect light differently depending on their orientation. By aligning the crystals in one direction a 0 can be stored, while aligning the crystals in the opposite direction stores a 1. Another, separate, low-power laser is used to read data from the disk in a way similar to a standard CD-ROM. The advantage of MO disks over CD-ROMs is that they can be read and written to. They are, however, more expensive than CD-ROMs and are used mostly in industrial applications. MO devices are not popular consumer products.

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