Computer Education

Computer Memory
Internal RAM
Internal ROM
External Memory
Magnetic Media
Optical Media
Magneto-Optical Media
Cache Memory

HISTORY
Beginnings
First Punch Cards
Beginnings
Precursor to Modern Computer

TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Digital and Analog
Range of Computer Ability

NETWORKS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

Optical Media


Optical external memory uses a laser to scan a spinning reflective disk in which the presence or absence of nonreflective pits in the disk indicates 1s or 0s. This is the same technology employed in the audio CD. Because its contents are permanently stored on it when it is manufactured, it is known as compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM). A variation on the CD, called compact disc-recordable (CD-R), uses a dye that turns dark when a stronger laser beam strikes it, and can thus have information written permanently on it by a computer.

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