Computer Education

Computer Memory
Internal RAM
Internal ROM
External Memory
Magnetic Media
Optical Media
Magneto-Optical Media
Cache Memory

HISTORY
Beginnings
First Punch Cards
Beginnings
Precursor to Modern Computer

TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Digital and Analog
Range of Computer Ability

NETWORKS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

Internal RAM


Random access memory is also called main memory because it is the primary memory that the CPU uses when processing information. The electronic circuits used to construct this main internal RAM can be classified as dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronized dynamic RAM (SDRAM), or static RAM (SRAM). DRAM, SDRAM, and SRAM all involve different ways of using transistors and capacitors to store data. In DRAM or SDRAM, the circuit for each bit consists of a transistor, which acts as a switch, and a capacitor, a device that can store a charge. To store the binary value 1 in a bit, DRAM places an electric charge on the capacitor. To store the binary value 0, DRAM removes all electric charge from the capacitor. The transistor is used to switch the charge onto the capacitor. When it is turned on, the transistor acts like a closed switch that allows electric current to flow into the capacitor and build up a charge. The transistor is then turned off, meaning that it acts like an open switch, leaving the charge on the capacitor. To store a 0, the charge is drained from the capacitor while the transistor is on, and then the transistor is turned off, leaving the capacitor uncharged. To read a value in a DRAM bit location, a detector circuit determines whether a charge is present or absent on the relevant capacitor.

DRAM is called dynamic because it is continually refreshed. The memory chips themselves cannot hold values over long periods of time. Because capacitors are imperfect, the charge slowly leaks out of them, which results in loss of the stored data. Thus, a DRAM memory system contains additional circuitry that periodically reads and rewrites each data value. This replaces the charge on the capacitors, a process known as refreshing memory. The major difference between SDRAM and DRAM arises from the way in which refresh circuitry is created. DRAM contains separate, independent circuitry to refresh memory. The refresh circuitry in SDRAM is synchronized to use the same hardware clock as the CPU. The hardware clock sends a constant stream of pulses through the CPU’s circuitry. Synchronizing the refresh circuitry with the hardware clock results in less duplication of electronics and better access coordination between the CPU and the refresh circuits.

In SRAM, the circuit for a bit consists of multiple transistors that hold the stored value without the need for refresh. The chief advantage of SRAM lies in its speed. A computer can access data in SRAM more quickly than it can access data in DRAM or SDRAM. However, the SRAM circuitry draws more power and generates more heat than DRAM or SDRAM. The circuitry for a SRAM bit is also larger, which means that a SRAM memory chip holds fewer bits than a DRAM chip of the same size. Therefore, SRAM is used when access speed is more important than large memory capacity or low power consumption.

The time it takes the CPU to transfer data to or from memory is particularly important because it determines the overall performance of the computer. The time required to read or write one bit is known as the memory access time. Current DRAM and SDRAM access times are between 30 and 80 nanoseconds (billionths of a second). SRAM access times are typically four times faster than DRAM.

The internal RAM on a computer is divided into locations, each of which has a unique numerical address associated with it. In some computers a memory address refers directly to a single byte in memory, while in others, an address specifies a group of four bytes called a word. Computers also exist in which a word consists of two or eight bytes, or in which a byte consists of six or ten bits.

When a computer performs an arithmetic operation, such as addition or multiplication, the numbers used in the operation can be found in memory. The instruction code that tells the computer which operation to perform also specifies which memory address or addresses to access. An address is sent from the CPU to the main memory (RAM) over a set of wires called an address bus. Control circuits in the memory use the address to select the bits at the specified location in RAM and send a copy of the data back to the CPU over another set of wires called a data bus. Inside the CPU, the data passes through circuits called the data path to the circuits that perform the arithmetic operation. The exact details depend on the model of the CPU. For example, some CPUs use an intermediate step in which the data is first loaded into a high-speed memory device within the CPU called a register.

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