Computer education

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

The Bus (Computer)


The bus enables the components in a computer, such as the CPU and the memory circuits, to communicate as program instructions are being carried out. The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. Each wire can carry one bit, so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time. For example, a 16-bit bus, with 16 parallel wires, allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits (2 bytes) of information from one component to another. Early computer designs utilized a single or very few buses. Modern designs typically use many buses, some of them specialized to carry particular forms of data, such as graphics.

Bus (computer), in computer science, a set of hardware lines—wires—used for data transfer among the components of a computer system. A bus is essentially a shared highway that connects different parts of the system—including the microprocessor, disk-drive controller, memory, and input/output ports—and enables them to transfer information. Usually supervised by the microprocessor, the bus is, in computers such as the Apple Macintosh and IBM and compatible models, specialized for carrying different types of information. One group of wires (actually, traces on a printed circuit board), for example, carries data; another carries the addresses (locations) where specific information can be found; yet another carries control signals to ensure that the different parts of the system use their shared highway without conflict. Buses are characterized by the number of bits they can transfer at a single time. A computer with an 8-bit data bus, for example, transfers 8 bits of data at a time, and one with a 16-bit data bus transfers 16 bits at a time. Because the bus is integral to internal data transfer and yet computer users often need to add extra components to the system, most microcomputer buses allow for expansion through one or more expansion slots (connectors for add-on circuit boards). Such boards, when they are added, make an electrical connection to the bus and effectively become part of the system. See also 8-Bit Machine; 16-Bit Machine; 32-Bit Machine; Bit; Microprocessor.

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