Computer Education

INTERNET
Uses of the Internet
Internet Access
How Information Travels Over the Internet
Network Names and Addresses
Client/Server Architecture
Electronic Mail and News Groups
Other Internet Applications
Bandwidth
History
The Future of the Internet

Computer Memory
Internal RAM
Internal ROM
External Memory
Magnetic Media
Optical Media
Magneto-Optical Media
Cache Memory

HISTORY
Beginnings
First Punch Cards
Beginnings
Precursor to Modern Computer

TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Digital and Analog
Range of Computer Ability

NETWORKS

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

Client/Server Architecture


Internet applications, such as the Web, are based on the concept of client/server architecture. In a client/server architecture, some application programs act as information providers (servers), while other application programs act as information receivers (clients). The client/server architecture is not one-to-one. That is, a single client can access many different servers, and a single server can be accessed by a number of different clients. Usually, a user runs a client application, such as a Web browser, that contacts one server at a time to obtain information. Because it only needs to access one server at a time, client software can run on almost any computer, including small handheld devices such as personal organizers and cellular telephones (these devices are sometimes called Web appliances). To supply information to others, a computer must run a server application. Although server software can run on any computer, most companies choose large, powerful computers to run server software because the company expects many clients to be in contact with its server at any given time. A faster computer enables the server program to return information with less delay.

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