Computer education

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES


Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding. The CPU can understand only this language. All other programming languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. Computer programmers, however, prefer to use other computer languages that use words or other commands because they are easier to use. These other languages are slower because the language must be translated first so that the computer can understand it. The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run than code written directly in the machine’s language.

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