Computer education

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

Assembly Language


Assembly language uses easy-to-remember commands that are more understandable to programmers than machine-language commands. Each machine language instruction has an equivalent command in assembly language. For example, in one Intel assembly language, the statement “MOV A, B” instructs the computer to copy data from location A to location B. The same instruction in machine code is a string of 16 0s and 1s. Once an assembly-language program is written, it is converted to a machine-language program by another program called an assembler.

Assembly language is fast and powerful because of its correspondence with machine language. It is still difficult to use, however, because assembly-language instructions are a series of abstract codes and each instruction carries out a relatively simple task. In addition, different CPUs use different machine languages and therefore require different programs and different assembly languages. Assembly language is sometimes inserted into a high-level language program to carry out specific hardware tasks or to speed up parts of the high-level program that are executed frequently.

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