Computer education

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

FLOW-MATIC


American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper helped develop the first commercially available high-level software language, FLOW-MATIC, in 1957. Hopper is credited for inventing the term bug, which indicates a computer malfunction; in 1945 she discovered a hardware failure in the Mark II computer caused by a moth trapped between its mechanical relays. She documented the event in her laboratory notebook, and the term eventually came to represent any computer error, including one based strictly on incorrect instructions in software. Hopper taped the moth into her notebook and wrote, “First actual case of a bug being found.”

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