Computer education

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Machine Language
Assembly Language
High-Level Languages
FLOW-MATIC
FORTRAN
BASIC

HOW COMPUTERS WORK
Operating System
Computer Memory
Bus
Input Devices
Central Processing Unit
Output Devices

HOW A CPU WORKS
INTRODUCTION
Function
Branching Instructions
Clock Pulses
Fixed-Point and Floating-Point Numbers

HISTORY
Early Computers
Transistor
The Integrated Circuit

Machine Language


Computer programs that can be run by a computerís operating system are called executables. An executable program is a sequence of extremely simple instructions known as machine code. These instructions are specific to the individual computerís CPU and associated hardware; for example, Intel Pentium and Power PC microprocessor chips each have different machine languages and require different sets of codes to perform the same task. Machine code instructions are few in number (roughly 20 to 200, depending on the computer and the CPU). Typical instructions are for copying data from a memory location or for adding the contents of two memory locations (usually registers in the CPU). Complex tasks require a sequence of these simple instructions. Machine code instructions are binaryóthat is, sequences of bits (0s and 1s). Because these sequences are long strings of 0s and 1s and are usually not easy to understand, computer instructions usually are not written in machine code. Instead, computer programmers write code in languages known as an assembly language or a high-level language.

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