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Pituitary Tumors


Definition Pituitary Tumors


Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths on the pituitary gland. Some tumors secrete hormones normally made by the pituitary gland.

Description Pituitary Tumors


Located in the center of the brain, the pituitary gland manufactures and secretes hormones that regulate growth, sexual development and functioning, and the fluid balance of the body. About 10% of all cancers in the skull are pituitary tumors. Pituitary adenomas (adenomas are tumors that grow from gland tissues) and pituitary tumors in children and adolescencents (craniopharyngiomas) are the most common types of pituitary tumors. They are usually benign and grow slowly. Even malignant pituitary tumors rarely spread to other parts of the body. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Pituitary adenomas do not secrete hormones but are likely to be larger and more invasive than tumors that do. Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors that are extremely difficult to remove. Radiation does not stop them from spreading throughout the pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas account for less than 5% of all brain tumors. Pituitary tumors usually develop between the ages of 30 and 40, but half of all craniopharyngiomas occur in children, with symptoms most often appearing between the ages of five and ten. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Causes and Symptoms Pituitary Tumors


The cause of pituitary tumors is not known, but may be genetic. Symptoms related to tumor location, size, and pressure on neighboring structures include:

persistent headache on one or both sides, or in the center of the forehead

blurred or double vision; loss of peripheral vision

drooping eyelid caused by pressure on nerves leading to the eye

seizures

Symptoms related to hormonal imbalance include:

excessive sweating

loss of appetite

loss of interest in sex

inability to tolerate cold temperatures

nausea

high levels of sodium in the blood

menstrual problems

excessive thirst

frequent urination

dry skin

constipation

premature or delayed puberty

delayed growth in children

galactorrea (milk secretion in the absence of pregnancy or breast feeding)

low blood pressure

low blood sugar

Diagnosis Pituitary Tumors


As many as 40% of all pituitary tumors do not release excessive quantities of hormones into the blood. Known as clinically nonfunctioning, these tumors are difficult to distinguish from tumors that produce similar symptoms. They may grow to be quite large before they are diagnosed. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Endocrinologists and neuroendocrinologists base the diagnosis of pituitary tumors on:

the patient's own observations and medical history

physical examination

laboratory studies of the patient's blood and cerebrospinal fluid

x rays of the skull and other studies that provide images of the inside of the brain (CT, MRI)

vision tests

urinalysis

Treatment Pituitary Tumors


Some pituitary tumors stabilize without treatment, but a neurosurgeon will operate at once to remove the tumor (adenectomy) or pituitary gland (hypophysectomy) of a patient whose vision is deteriorating rapidly. Patients who have pituitary apoplexy may experience very severe headaches, have symptoms of stiff neck, and sensitivity to light. This condition is considered an emergency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best imaging technique for patients with these symptoms. If the tumor is small, surgery may be done through the nose. If the tumor is large, it may require opening the skull for tumor removal. Selected patients do well with proton beam radiosurgery (the use of high energy particles in the form of a high energy beam to destroy an overactive gland). (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Treatment is determined by the type of tumor and by whether it has invaded tissues adjacent to the pituitary gland. Hormone-secreting tumors can be successfully treated with surgery, radiation, bromocriptine (Parlodel), Sandostatin (Octreotide), or other somatostatin analogues (drugs similar to somatostatin). Surgery is usually used to remove all or part of a tumor within the gland or the area surrounding it, and may be combined with radiation therapy to treat tumors that extend beyond the pituitary gland. Removal of the pituitary gland requires life-long hormone replacement therapy. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Radiation therapy can provide long-term control of the disease if it recurs after surgery, and radioactive pellets can be implanted in the brain to treat craniopharyngiomas. CV205-502, a new dopamine agonist (a drug that increases the effect of another, in this instance dopamine) can control symptoms of patients who do not respond to bromocriptine. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Prognosis Pituitary Tumors


Pituitary tumors are usually curable. Following surgery, adults may gradually resume their normal activities, and children may return to school when the effects of the operation have diminished, and appetite and sense of well-being have returned. Patients should wear medical identification tags identifying their condition and the hormonal replacement medicines they take. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Agonist
A drug that increases the effectiveness of another drug.

Analogue
A drug that is similar to the drug from which it is derived. (Pituitary Gland Tumor, Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor, Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor)

Pituitary Tumor | Pituitary Gland Tumor | Diagnosis Management Pituitary Tumor | Pituitary Symptom Treatment Tumor


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