HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF MENTAL ILLNESS:

Preliterate Societies
Ancient Societies
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
The Age of Enlightenment
Reform in the United States
Deinstitutionalization Movement
Recent Developments



Mental Illness



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Mental Illness





Deinstitutionalization Movement

Following World War II (1939-1945), a movement emerged in the United States to reform the system of psychiatric hospitals, in which hundreds of thousands of mentally ill persons lived in isolation for years or decades. Many mental health professionals—seeing that large state institutions caused as much, if not more, harm to patients than mental illnesses themselves—came to believe that only patients with severe symptoms should be hospitalized. In addition, the development in the 1950s of antipsychotic drugs, which helped to control bizarre and violent behavior, allowed more patients to be treated in the community. In combination, these factors led to the deinstitutionalization movement: the release, over the next four decades, of hundreds of thousands of patients from state mental hospitals. In 1950, 513,000 patients resided in these institutions (Deinstitutionalization Movement, Movement Mental Illness). By 1965 there were 475,000, and by 1990 state mental hospitals housed only 92,000 patients on any given night. Many patients who were released returned to their families, although many were transferred to questionable conditions in nursing homes or board-and-care homes. Many patients had no place to go and began to live on the streets. (Deinstitutionalization Movement, Movement Mental Illness)

The National Mental Health Act of 1946 created the National Institute of Mental Health as a center for research and funding of research on mental illness. In 1955 Congress created a commission to investigate the state of mental health care, treatment, and prevention. In 1963, as a result of the commission’s findings, Congress passed the Community Mental Health Centers Act, which authorized the construction of community mental health centers throughout the country. Implementation of these centers was not as extensive as originally planned, and many people with severe mental illnesses failed to receive care of any kind. (Deinstitutionalization Movement, Movement Mental Illness)

Deinstitutionalization Movement | Movement Mental Illness