HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF MENTAL ILLNESS:

Preliterate Societies
Ancient Societies
The Middle Ages
The Renaissance
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Preliterate Societies




Trepanning, the procedure of cutting a hole in the skull, is the earliest known medical operation. Some anthropologists believe that trepanning was performed on people with mental illnesses to drive out evil spirits from their heads. This skull dates from the Inca civilization. (Preliterate Societies, Mental Illness)

Evidence for trepanning, the surgical procedure of cutting a hole in the skull, dates back 4,000 to 5,000 years. Some anthropologists speculate that Stone Age societies performed trepanning on people with mental illnesses to release evil spirits or demons from their heads. In the absence of written records, however, it is impossible to know why the operation was performed. (Preliterate Societies, Mental Illness)

Preliterate Societies | Mental Illness