THE EXPERIENCE OF MENTAL ILLNESS

ATTITUDES TOWARD MENTAL ILLNESS

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC COSTS

DEFINING MENTAL ILLNESS

PREVALENCE - United States and Worldwide

Among Children and Adolescents
Among the Elderly
Among the Poor and Among Men and Women
Changing Rates of Mental Illness

KINDS OF MENTAL ILLNESSES

Anxiety Disorders and Mood Disorders
Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders
Personality and Cognitive Disorders
Dissociative, Somatoform and Factitious Disorders
Substance-Related, Eating and Impulse-Control Disorders

CAUSES OF MENTAL ILLNESS

Biological Perspective
Psychodynamic, Humanistic and Existential Perspectives
Behavioral, Cognitive and Sociocultural Perspective

DIAGNOSIS

TREATMENT

Drug Therapy
Individual Psychotherapy
Group and Family Therapies
Electroconvulsive Therapy and Psychosurgery
Treatment Settings
Treatment in Non-Western Countries


HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF MENTAL ILLNESS



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Mental Illness





Substance-Related Disorders

Substance-related disorders result from the abuse of drugs, side effects of medications, or exposure to toxic substances. Many mental health professionals regard these disorders as behavioral or addictive disorders rather than as mental illnesses, although substance-related disorders commonly occur in people with mental illnesses. Common substance-related disorders include alcoholism and other forms of drug dependence. In addition, drug use can contribute to symptoms of other mental disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Drugs associated with substance-related disorders include alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, heroin (see Opium), amphetamines, hallucinogens, and sedatives. (Substance-Related Disorders, Eating Disorders, Impulse-Control Disorders, Mental Illness)

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are conditions in which an individual experiences severe disturbances in eating behaviors. People with anorexia nervosa have an intense fear about gaining weight and refuse to eat adequately or maintain a normal body weight. People with bulimia nervosa (see Bulimia) repeatedly engage in episodes of binge eating, usually followed by self-induced vomiting or the use of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications to prevent weight gain. Eating disorders occur mostly among young women in Western societies and certain parts of Asia. (Substance-Related Disorders, Eating Disorders, Impulse-Control Disorders, Mental Illness)

Impulse-Control Disorders

People with impulse-control disorders cannot control an impulse to engage in harmful behaviors, such as explosive anger, stealing (kleptomania), setting fires (pyromania), gambling (see Pathological Gambling), or pulling out their own hair (trichotillomania). Some mental illnesses—such as mania, schizophrenia, and antisocial personality disorder—may include symptoms of impulsive behavior. (Substance-Related Disorders, Eating Disorders, Impulse-Control Disorders, Mental Illness)

Substance-Related Disorders | Eating Disorders | Impulse-Control Disorders | Mental Illness