Tuberculosis - INTRODUCTION

TRANSMISSION AND INFECTION

Primary and Secondary TB

DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE

TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

HISTORY

CURRENT PREVALENCE OF TB



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DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE




Diagnosis of TB | Tuberculosis | Tuberculin Skin Testing


Diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) - Tuberculin Skin Testing

Lung tissue calcification, resulting from pulmonary tuberculosis, appears as yellow patches within the chest area of this human X ray. When airborne phlegm contaminated with the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis is inhaled, nodular lesions, called tubercles, may form in the lungs and spread through the nearest lymph node. (DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE, Tuberculosis, Diagnosis of TB, Tuberculin Skin Testing)

Diagnosis of TB requires two separate methods. Tuberculin skin testing is a method of screening for exposure to TB infection. A person who was infected with TB will have developed a hypersensitivity to the TB bacteria even if they did not develop the disease. A purified protein derived from the bacteria is injected into the skin. The skin area is inspected 48 to 72 hours later for a bump. A positive test implies that TB infection has occurred. Skin tests are not 100 percent accurate and they do not always indicate the presence of active disease. (DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE, Tuberculosis, Diagnosis of TB, Tuberculin Skin Testing)

Diagnosis of TB disease is established by the identification of the bacteria in sputum (matter coughed up from the lungs) or other body fluids and tissues in conjunction with an abnormal chest X ray and the presence of TB symptoms. Once TB has been diagnosed, further testing is required to determine which drugs would be most appropriate to treat the particular strain of TB bacteria. (DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE, Tuberculosis, Diagnosis of TB, Tuberculin Skin Testing)

Detecting the presence or the strain of the TB bacterium was once a time-consuming process that would often delay therapy. Today, the use of genetic engineering techniques greatly reduces the time required for diagnosis. A new technique is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which can rapidly duplicate a tiny amount of bacterial hereditary material from a small sample of infected sputum. (DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE, Tuberculosis, Diagnosis of TB, Tuberculin Skin Testing)

DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION AND DISEASE | Tuberculosis | Diagnosis of TB | Tuberculin Skin Testing