From its first railway in 1853, the Indian Railways has grown to become Asia es second largest (after China) and the worlds third largest state-owned railway system. Indian Railways is organized as a central government operation under the Indian Railway Board.
Indian Railways owns and operates its own electric-locomotive, diesel-locomotive, and passenger-coach factories (Indian Railways, India Railways). It also operates one of the worlds largest railway research organizations.
As elsewhere in Asia, the Indian railroads strive to meet increasing passenger and freight loads resulting from increasing population and expanding industrial and agricultural production. During the 1970s, a modernization program introduced welded rail, radio communications, centralized traffic control, mechanized railroad yards, and containerization into the Indian rail system. However, inadequate funding and a lack of physical resources remain obstacles to modernization.