Massive cranes and girders are used in the construction of bulk carriers in a Spanish shipyard. These ships are in an advanced state of construction, although they will undergo a rigorous battery of tests and refinement before leaving the construction docks.
Cargo ships carry manufactured goods, foods, coffee, textiles, metals, minerals, and edible oils across the world's oceans or other large bodies of water. Modern cargo ships usually feature derricks (onboard loading cranes) to expedite loading and unloadin.
They have refrigerated containers for carrying meat, fish, fruit, and bulk liquids such as orange juice. Cargo ships may be designed to carry a single product, such as sea-going ore carriers, or they may have a general design that enables them to carry a variety of cargoes.
Cargo ships may follow regular shipping routes, or they may travel from port to port carrying any available cargoes. Cargo ships that follow established routes are called liners. They run along fixed routes and charge standard rates. Cargo vessels that move from port to port without following a fixed route are called tramps. Tramps carry whatever loads are available. The work of a tramp is facilitated by brokers at the maritime centers at London, England; New York; and Tokyo, Japan. These brokers match available ships with shippers and negotiate prices.