Boats
Boats and Boatbuilding INTRODUCTION
BASICS OF BOAT DESIGN
Buoyancy and Weight
Trim and Stability
Structure
Watertightness

SKIN AND BARK BOATS

WOODEN BOATS
Lapstrake Construction
Carvel Construction
Plywood Construction

CANVAS-COVERED BOATS
ALUMINUM BOATS
FERROCEMENT BOATS
FIBERGLASS BOATS
MEASURING AND MODELING
The Half-Model
Lift Models and Lofting

BOAT PROPULSION
Inboard Motors
Outboard Motors
Water-Jet Drive
Surface-Piercing Propeller

Motor-Boat Racing
Rowing
Yachting

Ships
THE EARLIEST SHIPS
Earliest Sailing Vessels
Galleys
Biremes
Triremes
Roman Galleys
Dromons
Lateen-Rigged Ships
Junks
Viking Ships
Cog
Carrack
Caravel
Galleon
East Indiamen
Ships of the Line
Frigates, Sloops, and Brigs
Clippers
Last Days of Sail
FUEL-POWERED SHIPS
Paddlewheel Steamships
Innovative Ships of the Late 19th Century
The Screw Propeller
Iron and Steel Hulls
Double- and Triple-Expansion Steam Engines
Steam Turbines
Diesel Engines
The Great Ocean Liners
Cruise Ships
Cargo Ships
Container Ships
Roll-On-Roll-Off and LASH Vessels
Tankers
Crude Carriers
Product Tankers
Other Specialized Tankers
Tanker Safety
Fishing Vessels
Trawlers
Seiners
Long Liners
Research Vessels
Hovercraft
The First Nuclear-Powered Vessels
Naval Vessels
Aircraft Carriers
Battleships
Cruisers
Destroyers
Frigates
Mine Craft
NEW TRENDS IN SHIP DESIGN
SUBMARINES
Submersible Craft
Torpedo (weapon)
shiptravel.auuuu.com Index

Lapstrake Construction


In northern Europe, lapstrake, or overlapping, construction was developed to a high order by the 9th century ad, particularly by the Scandinavians. Lapstrake is also known as clinch-built or clinker-built construction. Planks apparently were split off a log by means of wedges, or they were hewn and assembled on the keel, one after another beginning with the garboard, the lowest. In the Viking ships and boats of the 10th century and somewhat later, lashings were still used to secure the planks to the frames. Such construction resulted in a very flexible hull, yet one of relatively great strength. The lashings eventually were replaced by through fastenings, that is, by pegs, and later were replaced by nails driven into the planking and frames.

In lapstrake construction the longitudinal seams of the planking are formed by overlapping the edges enough to allow continuous nailing. Thus, the skin, or exterior planking, adds strength to the boat. Frames are then added to give the required stiffness of form. Originally the frames were hewn of natural-crook timber, including root or limb knees and crooked trunks. Steam-bent frames became popular in the early 19th century.
Viking Ship
Viking Ship
This Viking ship, on display at the Viking Museum in Oslo, Norway, is an example of lapstrake construction. In Viking ships of the 9th century and later, external planks were overlapped and lashed to the ship’s frame, producing a strong, flexible hull.
Boats
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