Boats
Boats and Boatbuilding INTRODUCTION
BASICS OF BOAT DESIGN
Buoyancy and Weight
Trim and Stability
Structure
Watertightness

SKIN AND BARK BOATS

WOODEN BOATS
Lapstrake Construction
Carvel Construction
Plywood Construction

CANVAS-COVERED BOATS
ALUMINUM BOATS
FERROCEMENT BOATS
FIBERGLASS BOATS
MEASURING AND MODELING
The Half-Model
Lift Models and Lofting

BOAT PROPULSION
Inboard Motors
Outboard Motors
Water-Jet Drive
Surface-Piercing Propeller

Motor-Boat Racing
Rowing
Yachting

Ships
THE EARLIEST SHIPS
Earliest Sailing Vessels
Galleys
Biremes
Triremes
Roman Galleys
Dromons
Lateen-Rigged Ships
Junks
Viking Ships
Cog
Carrack
Caravel
Galleon
East Indiamen
Ships of the Line
Frigates, Sloops, and Brigs
Clippers
Last Days of Sail
FUEL-POWERED SHIPS
Paddlewheel Steamships
Innovative Ships of the Late 19th Century
The Screw Propeller
Iron and Steel Hulls
Double- and Triple-Expansion Steam Engines
Steam Turbines
Diesel Engines
The Great Ocean Liners
Cruise Ships
Cargo Ships
Container Ships
Roll-On-Roll-Off and LASH Vessels
Tankers
Crude Carriers
Product Tankers
Other Specialized Tankers
Tanker Safety
Fishing Vessels
Trawlers
Seiners
Long Liners
Research Vessels
Hovercraft
The First Nuclear-Powered Vessels
Naval Vessels
Aircraft Carriers
Battleships
Cruisers
Destroyers
Frigates
Mine Craft
NEW TRENDS IN SHIP DESIGN
SUBMARINES
Submersible Craft
Torpedo (weapon)
shiptravel.auuuu.com Index

BOATS MEASURING AND MODELING


In primitive boatbuilding, the builder often used width of hand, length of forearm, and length between knuckles as units of measurement. Notched sticks also were used for measuring. More advanced building methods, using molds, required that the keel, the stem, and the sternpost be set up on stakes or blocks and that an arbitrary midship frame be erected in place. The curved members required for this frame were made from molds, used by shifting the butts to produce boats of varying size but similar form. After the midsection frame was put in place, two or more battens on each side were secured, one to form the sheer line, one along the turn of the bilge, and often one along the ends of the floor timbers, or short frame members, that crossed the keel. Sometimes other battens were fitted between the bilge and sheer battens and between the bilge and floorhead battens. Individual frame members were then shaped to fit inside the battens at selected intervals; when all the frames were made, the battens were removed and the hull was planked. All frames were hewn from crooked timber.
Boats
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