Hopper barge is a kind of non-mechanical ship or vessel that cannot move around itself, unlike other types of barges. Designed to carry materials, like rocks, sand, soil and rubbish, for dumping into the ocean, a river or lake for land reclamation.
Hopper barges are seen in two distinctive types; raked hopper or box hopper barges. The raked hopper barges move faster than the box hoppers; they are both designed for movement of dry bulky commodities
There are several "hoppers" or compartments between the fore and aft bulkhead of the barge. The bottom of the barge hull is also a large "hopper door", opening downwards. The doors are closed while the vessel is operating, so she can carry the dumping materials. The doors open when the ship is arrived at her destination position for leaving the dumping materials.
Splitbarges have the same purpose, but instead of a door in the hull's bottom, the hull of the whole barge splits longitudinally. The vessel consists of two major parts (port and starboard halves), both mostly symmetrical in design. Both parts of the vessel are hinged at the deck and operated by hydraulic cylinders. When the vessel splits the load is dumped rapidly which means the ship has to be very stable in order not to capsize or otherwise get damaged.
The hull of the hopper barge can be split into two (port and starboard side hull) and connected by two hinges at fore and aft of the hopper, which the dumping materials are putting in to carry to the destination.