Special Education

Education of Students with Mental Retardation
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
TESTING INTELLIGENCE
PROGRAMS
DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD
CURRENT ISSUES

Mental Retardation
DEGREES OF SEVERITY
Mild
Moderate
Severe
Profound
CAUSES
Genetic Causes
External Causes
PREVENTION

TREATMENT AND CARE
Education
Living Arrangements
Employment Opportunities

Psychosis
Behaviorism
Memory Distortions
The Nature of Intelligence
Human Motivation
Benefits of Psychotherapy
Psychological Influences on the Immune System

Special Olympics
Cretinism
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
HOW ALCOHOL AFFECTS THE FETUS
German Measles
Iodine Deficiency Disorder Threatens Millions
Phenylketonuria
Tay-Sachs Disease
Down Syndrome Chromosomes

Maria Montessori
EARLY LIFE
MONTESSORI METHOD
LATER LIFE

Benefits of Psychotherapy


Psychotherapy is an important form of treatment for a host of psychological problems, including low self-esteem, social problems, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. But is psychotherapy effective? For years, clinical psychologists have debated the assumed benefits of psychotherapy. Many studies have compared psychotherapy to various drug treatments or to no treatment at all. By statistically combining hundreds of these studies, researchers have confirmed that overall, psychotherapy is better than no treatment at all. These studies have shown that most patients who improve with psychotherapy do so within six months of beginning treatment.

Surprisingly, these studies also indicate that all major types of psychotherapy—despite differences in theoretical orientations or in techniques used—are about equally effective. Psychologists theorize that despite surface differences, all psychotherapies have in common three factors that help to promote change: a supportive and trusting relationship, an opportunity to open up and talk freely, and positive expectations for improvement.

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