Special Education

Education of Students with Mental Retardation
CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION
TESTING INTELLIGENCE
PROGRAMS
DEVELOPMENT OF FIELD
CURRENT ISSUES

Mental Retardation
DEGREES OF SEVERITY
Mild
Moderate
Severe
Profound
CAUSES
Genetic Causes
External Causes
PREVENTION

TREATMENT AND CARE
Education
Living Arrangements
Employment Opportunities

Psychosis
Behaviorism
Memory Distortions
The Nature of Intelligence
Human Motivation
Benefits of Psychotherapy
Psychological Influences on the Immune System

Special Olympics
Cretinism
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
HOW ALCOHOL AFFECTS THE FETUS
German Measles
Iodine Deficiency Disorder Threatens Millions
Phenylketonuria
Tay-Sachs Disease
Down Syndrome Chromosomes

Maria Montessori
EARLY LIFE
MONTESSORI METHOD
LATER LIFE

The Nature of Intelligence


In 1905 French psychologist Alfred Binet devised the first major intelligence test for the purpose of identifying slow learners in school. In doing so, Binet assumed that intelligence could be measured as a general intellectual capacity and summarized in a numerical score, or intelligence quotient (IQ). Consistently, testing has revealed that although each of us is more skilled in some areas than in others, a general intelligence underlies our more specific abilities.

Today, many psychologists believe that there is more than one type of intelligence. American psychologist Howard Gardner proposed the existence of multiple intelligences, each linked to a separate system within the brain. He theorized that there are seven types of intelligence: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. American psychologist Robert Sternberg suggested a different model of intelligence, consisting of three components: analytic (“school smarts,” as measured in academic tests), creative (a capacity for insight), and practical (“street smarts,” or the ability to size up and adapt to situations).

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