CARS EDUCATION: AUTO Industry - New automobile



Information on New Automobile
POWER SYSTEM Engine Engine Types Fuel Supply Exhaust System Cooling and Heating System DRIVETRAIN Transmission Front- and Rear-Wheel Drive Suspension System Wheels and Tires Steering Brakes ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Ignition System SAFETY FEATURES CARS HISTORY Automobiles Through the Years Internal-Combustion Engine Early Electric Cars AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY

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TYPES OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Buses Paratransit Streetcars Light-Rail Transit Heavy-Rail Transit Commuter Rail Transit Automated Guided Transit Ferries DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION IN THE UNITED STATES HISTORY

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE Domestic Impact Foreign Trade HOW CARS ARE BUILT Research, Design, and Development Manufacturing and Assembly Sales and Service Customer Feedback HISTORY OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Early Automobile Concepts Henry Ford and Mass Production Other Automakers The Great Depression of the 1930s Labor Unions and Strikes Wartime Production Postwar Production Automobile Safety Foreign Imports and the Energy Crisis The 1980s and 1990s FUTURE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY TRENDS Computerization Alternative Fuel Research Materials and Safety

TYPES OF ROADS Highways Urban Streets Rural Roads ROADWAY ENGINEERING Roadbed Base Course Wearing Course Bituminous Pavement Concrete Pavement ROAD PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION HISTORY OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION

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Car Suspension Systems

 The suspension system, part of the undercarriage of an automobile, contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. In one type of suspension system, a long tube, or strut, has a shock absorber built into its center section. Shock absorbers control, or dampen, the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. One shock absorber is installed at each wheel. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil, gas, and air, or a combination to absorb energy.

 Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. Sports cars and sport-utility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain.

 Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs, much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. Front wheels on modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle. Each wheel has its own axle and suspension supports, so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car. Many rear-axle suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. However, advanced passenger cars, luxury sedans, and sports cars feature independent rear-wheel suspension systems.

 Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. Sensors, a pump, and hydraulic cylinders, all monitored and controlled by computer, enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration. 2021.